<span id="nj5nl"><noframes id="nj5nl"><span id="nj5nl"></span>
<thead id="nj5nl"></thead>
<strike id="nj5nl"><noframes id="nj5nl">
<th id="nj5nl"><noframes id="nj5nl"><th id="nj5nl"></th>
<th id="nj5nl"></th>
<th id="nj5nl"></th>
<th id="nj5nl"><noframes id="nj5nl"><th id="nj5nl"></th><th id="nj5nl"></th>
  • 歡迎進入材料科學世界,一起探索材料奧秘
  • 收藏本站,獲取最新材料前沿資訊

「材料課堂」常備!《材料科學基礎》專有名詞英文翻譯

基礎知識 mse_material 16221閱讀 掃描二維碼

第一章 緒論

metal: 金屬

ceramic: 陶瓷

polymer: 聚合物

Composites: 復合材料

Semiconductors: 半導體

Biomaterials: 生物材料

Processing: 加工過程

Structure: 組織結構

Properties: 性質

Performance: 使用性能

Mechanical properties: 力學性能

Electrical properties: 電性能

Thermal behavior: 熱性能

Magnetic properties: 磁性能

Optical properties: 光性能

Deteriorative characteristics: 老化特性

第二章 原子結構與原子鍵

Atomic mass unit (amu): 原子質量單位

Atomic number: 原子數

Atomic weight: 原子量

Bohr atomic model: 波爾原子模型

Bonding energy: 鍵能

Coulombic force: 庫侖力

Covalent bond: 共價鍵

Dipole (electric): 偶極子

electronic configuration: 電子構型

electron state: 電位

Electronegative: 負電的

Electropositive: 正電的

Ground state: 基態

Hydrogen bond: 氫鍵

Ionic bond: 離子鍵

Isotope: 同位素

Metallic bond: 金屬鍵

Mole: 摩爾

Molecule: 分子

Pauli exclusion principle: 泡利不相容原理

Periodic table: 元素周期表

Polar molecule: 極性分子

Primary bonding: 強鍵

Quantum mechanics: 量子力學

Quantum number: 量子數

Secondary bonding: 弱鍵

valence electron: 價電子

van der waals bond: 范德華鍵

Wave-mechanical model: 波粒二象性模型

第三章 金屬與陶瓷的結構

Allotropy: 同素異形現象

Amorphous: 無定形

Anion: 陰離子

Anisotropy: 各向異性

atomic packing factor(APF): 原子堆積因數

body-centered cubic (BCC): 體心立方結構

Bragg’s law: 布拉格定律

Cation: 陽離子

coordination number: 配位數

crystal structure: 晶體結構

crystal system: 晶系

crystalline: 晶體的

diffraction: 衍射

face-centered cubic (FCC): 面心立方結構

第四章 晶體缺陷

Alloy: 合金

A metallic substance that is composed of two or more elements.

由兩種及以上元素組成的金屬材料。

Weight percent (wt%):質量百分數

Concentration specification on the basis of weight (or mass) of a particular element relative to the total alloy weight (or mass).

Stoichiometry: 正常價化合物

For ionic compounds, the state of having exactly the ratio of cations to anions speci-fied by the chemical formula.

在離子化合物中,正、負離子的比例嚴格遵守化學公式定義的化合價關系。

Imperfection: 缺陷,不完整性

A deviation from perfection; normally applied to crystalline materials wherein there is a deviation from atomic/molecular order and/or continuity.

對完美性的偏離,在材料科學領域中通常指晶體材料中原子/分子在排列順序/連續性上的偏離。

Point defect: 點缺陷

A crystalline defect associated with one or, at most, several atomic sites.

一種僅波及一個或數個原子的晶體缺陷。

Vacancy: 空位

A normally occupied lattice site from which an atom or ion is missing.

一個缺失原子或離子的晶格節點位置。

Vacancy diffusion: 空位擴散

The diffusion mechanism wherein net atomic migration is from lattice site to an adjacent vacancy.

一種擴散機制,此時原子的凈遷移是從晶格節點位置遷移到相近的空位中。

Self-interstitial: 自間隙原子

A host atom or ion that is positioned on an interstitial lattice site.

處于自身晶格間隙中的原子或離子。

Schottky defect: 肖脫基缺陷

In an ionic solid, a defect consisting of a cation–vacancy and anion–vacancy pair.

在離子晶體中的一種缺陷結構,它是由一個陽離子空位和一個陰離子空位組成的空位對。

Atomic vibration:原子振動

The vibration of an atom about its normal position in a substance.

材料中原子在其平衡位置附近的振動。一般說來,這種振動與溫度相關,溫度越高,振動的幅度越大,因此也稱為原子熱振動。

Substitutional solid solution: 置換固溶體

A solid solution wherein the solute atoms replace or substitute for the host atoms.

溶質原子取代或代替溶劑原子而形成的固溶體。

Interstitial diffusion: 間隙擴散

A diffusion mechanism whereby atomic motion is from interstitial site to interstitial site.

一種擴散機制,此時原子的運動是從晶格間隙位置遷移到另一個相近的間隙位置。

Interstitial solid solution: 間隙固溶體

A solid solution wherein relatively small solute atoms occupy interstitial positions between the solvent or host atoms.

相對尺寸較小的溶質原子占據溶劑或晶格原子之間間隙位置所形成的固溶體。

Solid solution: 固溶體

A homogeneous crystalline phase that contains two or more chemical species.

Both substitutional and interstitial solid solutions are possible.

包含兩種或兩種以上元素的均勻單相。固溶體可以以置換固溶體或間隙固溶體的形式存在。

Solid-solution strengthening: 固溶體強化

Hardening and strengthening of metals that result from alloying in which a solid solution is formed.

The presence of impurity atoms restricts dislocation mobility.

由于形成固溶體的合金化過程引起的金屬硬化和強化,其機制是異類原子的存在限制了位錯的可動性。

Solute: 溶質

One component or element of a solution present in a minor concentration.

It is dissolved in the solvent.

溶液(固溶體)中,含量較少的組元或元素。溶質溶解在溶劑中。

Solution heat treatment: 固溶處理,均勻化退火

The process used to form a solid solution by dissolving precipitate particles.

Often, the solid solution is supersaturated and metastable at ambient conditions as a result of rapid cooling from an elevated temperature.

讓沉淀物融解而形成固溶體的熱處理過程。通常情況下,從固溶處理溫度下快速冷卻,形成室溫下亞穩態過飽和固溶體。

Solvent: 溶劑

The component of a solution present in the greatest amount.

It is the component that dissolves a solute.

溶液(固溶體)中,含量最大的組元,此組元溶解了溶質。

Burgers vector (b): 柏氏矢量

A vector that denotes the magnitude and direction of lattice distortion associated with a dislocation.表示位錯引起晶格畸變程度和方向的矢量。

Composition (Ci): 成分,組成

The relative content of a particular element or constituent (i)

within an alloy, usually expressed in weight percent or atom percent.

合金中某一元素或組分的相對含量,通常用質量百分數或原子百分數來表示。

Defect structure: 缺陷結構,缺陷組態

Relating to the kinds and concentrations of vacancies and interstitials in a ceramic compound.

在陶瓷化合物中,與空位、間隙原子的類型和偏聚有關的缺陷組態。

Dislocation: 位錯

A linear crystalline defect around which there is atomic misalignment.

晶體材料中的線狀缺陷,在其附近,原子發生錯排。

Plastic deformation corresponds to the motion of dislocations in response to an applied shear stress. Edge, screw, and mixed dislocations are possible.

在外加切應力作用下位錯的運動可以導致晶體材料的塑性變形??赡艽嬖诘奈诲e類型有刃型位錯、螺型位錯和混合型位錯。

Screw dislocation: 螺型位錯

A linear crystalline defect associated with the lattice distortion created when normally parallel planes are joined together to form a helical ramp.

The Burgers vector is parallel to the dislocation line.

一種一維線型晶體缺陷,形態上可是描述為當相互平行的相鄰晶面之間依次錯粘合在一起形成的螺旋型斜面的中心線區域所形成的原子錯排組態。

螺型位錯的柏氏矢量平行與其位錯線。

Mixed dislocation: 混合位錯

A dislocation that has both edge and screw components.

同時含有刃型分量和螺型分量的位錯。

Dislocation density: 位錯密度

The total dislocation length per unit volume of material; alternately, the number of dislocations that intersect a unit area of a random surface section.

在單位體積材料中包含位錯的長度,或者說在材料內部任意單位截面上位錯線的根數。

Dislocation line: 位錯線

The line that extends along the end of the extra half-plane of atoms for an edge dislocation, and along the center of the spiral of a screw dislocation.

刃型位錯中多余半原子面邊緣的連線,或者螺型位錯中錯排螺旋的中心軸線。

Edge dislocation:刃型位錯

A linear crystalline defect associated with the lattice distortion produced in the vicinity of the end of an extra half plane of atoms within a crystal.

The Burgers vector is perpendicular to the dislocation line.

一種一維線型晶體缺陷,形態上可是描述為晶體中存在的多余半原子面的末端附近區域所形成的原子錯排組態。

刃型位錯的柏氏矢量垂直與其位錯線。

Electroneutrality: 電中性

The state of having exactly the same numbers of positive and negative electrical charges (ionic and electronic), that is, of being electrically neutral.

材料中一種正負電荷(離子和電子)數目精確相等的狀態。在此狀態下,材料是不帶電的。

Frenkel defect: 弗侖克爾缺陷

In an ionic solid, a cation–vacancy and cation–interstitial pair.

在離子固體中的陽離子-空位對和陽離子-間隙原子對。

Grain: 晶粒

An individual crystal in a polycrystalline metal or ceramic.

金屬或陶瓷多晶體中的一個單獨的小晶體。

Grain boundary: 晶界

The interface separating two adjoining grains having different crystallographic orientations.

把兩個相鄰具有不同晶體學取向的晶粒分離開的界面。

Grain growth: 晶粒長大

The increase in average grain size of a polycrystalline material; for most materials, an elevated-temperature heat treatment is necessary.

在多晶體材料中晶粒平均尺寸的增加,對大多數材料來說,這需要在一定溫度下進行熱處理。

Grain size: 晶粒尺寸

The average grain diameter as determined from a random cross section.

從材料任一橫截面上測量的晶粒直徑的平均值。

Microscopy: 顯微術,顯微鏡學

The investigation of microstructural elements using some type of microscope.

用某種類型的顯微鏡對材料微觀組織情況進行的研究。

Microstructure: 顯微組織

The structural features of an alloy (e.g., grain and phase structure) that are subject to observation under a microscope.

在顯微鏡下觀察到的某合金的結構特征(例如:晶粒和相的組織結構特征)。

Photomicrograph: 顯微組織照片

The photograph made with a microscope, which records a microstructural image.

在顯微鏡下拍攝,記錄顯微組織結構形態的照片。

Scanning electron microscope: 掃描電子顯微鏡,SEM

A microscope that produces an image by using an electron beam that scans the surface of a specimen; an image is produced by Cu forms a substitutional solid solution for concentrations up to reflected electron beams.

Examination of surface and/or microstructural features at high magnifications is possible.

使用一束電子流掃描樣品表面,用樣品產生的反射電子束產生圖象的一種顯微鏡。掃描電子顯微鏡的應用使對樣品的表面特征和顯微組織特征進行高倍觀察成為可能。

Scanning probe microscope: 掃描探針顯微鏡,SPM

A microscope that does not produce an image using light radiation. Rather, a very small and sharp probe raster scans across the specimen surface; out-of-surface plane deflections in response to electronic or other interactions with the probe are monitored, from which a topographical map of the specimen surface(on a nanometer scale) is produced.

一種不用光學射線產生圖象,而是用非常尖銳的探針依次橫掃描過樣品表面,

利用探針對被測樣品進行掃描,同時檢測掃描過程中探針與樣品的相互作用(如樣品-探針間的隧道電流或相互作用力等),得到樣品相關性質(如電子態密度、形貌、摩擦力、磁疇結構等),因而統稱為掃描探針顯微鏡(SPM)

Transmission electron microscope: 透射電子顯微鏡,TEM

A microscope that produces an image by using electron beams that are transmitted (pass through) the specimen.

Examination of internal features at high magnifications is possible.

透射電子顯微鏡是用穿過樣品的透射電子束產生樣品組織形貌像的顯微鏡。在透射電子顯微鏡上,可以在高倍下研究樣品的內部結構特征。

第五章 擴散

Diffusion: 擴散

Mass transport by atomic motion.

固體中原子,或分子等,通過熱運動而發生長程遷移,或宏觀物質傳輸現象。

這里所談的原子遷移,在是指固體中原子脫離它原來的平衡位置躍遷到另一平衡位置的位移。從產生擴散的原因來看,原子的遷移主要分為兩大類,一類稱為化學擴散,它是由于擴散物質在固體中分布不均勻、在化學濃度梯度的推動下產生的擴散;另一類稱為自擴散,它是在沒有化學濃度梯度情況下,僅僅由于熱振動而產生的擴散。自擴散現象只有采用放射性同位素技術才能察覺。此外,還有應力場、熱場和電場等所引起的擴散。

Diffusion flux (J): 擴散通量

The quantity of mass diffusing through and perpendicular to a unit cross-sectional area of material per unit time.

單位時間內通過一個垂直與擴散方向上單位橫截面積內的通過物質量。

Diffusion coefficient (D): 擴散系數

The constant of proportionality between the diffusion flux and the concentration gradient in Fick’s first law.

Its magnitude is indicative of the rate of atomic diffusion.

Fick第一定律中,擴散通量和濃度梯度之間的比例系數。其量級表示了原子擴散的速度。

Fick’s first law: 菲克第一定律,擴散第一定律

The diffusion flux is proportional to the concentration gradient.

This relationship is employed for steady-state diffusion situations.

擴散通量與濃度梯度成正比例。這種關系被用于描述穩定態擴散。

Fick’s second law: 菲克第二定律,擴散第二定律

The time rate of change of concentration is proportional to the

second derivative of concentration.

This relationship is employed in non steady-state diffusion situations.

濃度對時間的變化率成正與濃度對距離的二階導數。這種關系被用于描述非穩定態擴散。

Steady-state diffusion: 穩定態擴散

The diffusion condition for which there is no net accumulation or depletion of diffusing species.

The diffusion flux is independent of time.

擴散組元既沒有凈堆積也沒有凈虧空的擴散過程是穩定態擴散。也可以描述為:擴散通量與時間無關的擴散過程是穩定態擴散。

Nonsteady-state diffusion: 非穩定態擴散

The diffusion condition for which there is some net accumulation or depletion of diffusing species.

The diffusion flux is dependent on time.

擴散過程中,擴散組元存在凈堆積或凈虧空的擴散過程是非穩定態擴散。也可以描述為:擴散通量與時間有關的擴散過程是非穩定態擴散。

Self-diffusion: 自擴散

Atomic migration in pure metals.

純金屬中的原子遷移過程。

Interstitial diffusion: 間隙擴散

A diffusion mechanism whereby atomic motion is from interstitial site to interstitial site.

晶體擴散機制的一種。間隙原子由一個間隙位置遷移至鄰近的間隙位置所構成的擴散。

Vacancy diffusion: 空位擴散

The diffusion mechanism wherein net atomic migration is from lattice site to an adjacent vacancy.

一種擴散機制,這時候原子的凈遷移過程是從晶格結點位置移動到鄰近的空位中。

Activation energy (Q): 激活能,Q

The energy required to initiate a reaction, such as diffusion.

開動某一反應或過程,例如擴散過程,所需要的能量。

Carburizing: 滲碳

The process by which the surface carbon concentration of a ferrous alloy is increased by diffusion from the surrounding environment.

從周圍環境中向鐵基合金表面擴散碳,從而使其表面碳濃度提高的工藝過程。

Component: 組分

A chemical constituent (element or compound) of an alloy, which may be used to specify its composition.

合金的任一組成(可以是元素或化合物),可以被用于區分其構成成分。

Composition (Ci), Concentration: 成分,Ci

The relative content of a particular element or constituent (i)

within an alloy, usually expressed in weight percent or atom percent. Also call it concentration.

合金中某一元素或組分的相對含量,通常用質量百分數或原子百分數來表示。也稱為濃度。

Concentration gradient (dC/dx): 濃度梯度,

The slope of the concentration profile at a specific position.

濃度曲線某一點處的斜率。

Concentration profile: 濃度曲線

The curve that results when the concentration of a chemical species is plotted versus position in a material.

在材料中,某種化學物質的濃度隨其位置關系變化的曲線。

Interdiffusion, impurity diffusion: 互擴散

Diffusion of atoms of one metal into another metal.

一種金屬中的原子向另一種金屬中的擴散叫互擴散,又稱為雜質擴散。

第六章 力學性能

Anelasticity: 滯彈性
In most engineering materials, elastic deformation will continue after the stress application, and upon load release some finite time is required for complete recovery.

This time dependent elastic behavior is known as anelasticity.

應力施加后,大多數工程材料彈性形變都會持續,并且撤去加載,樣品的完全回復也需要一定的時間。這種與時間相關的彈性行為稱為滯彈性。
Design stress: 設計應力
For static situations and when ductile materials are used, design stress, σd, is taken as the calculated stress level σc (on the basis of the estimated maximum load) multiplied by a design factor, N’, that is σd= N’σc, where N’ is greater than unity.
對于靜態條件以及延展性材料的情況下,設計應力σd是計算的應力σc(即估算的最大載荷)乘以一個設計因子N’,即σd= N’σc,其中N’大于1。
Ductility: 延伸度
Ductility is a measure of the degree of plastic deformation that has been sustained at fracture.
延伸度是指材料在斷裂時發生的塑性形變程度的量度。
Elastic deformation: 彈性形變
Deformation in which stress and strain are proportional is called elastic deformation. Elastic deformation is nonpermanent, which means that when the applied load is released, the piece returns to its original shape.
應力與應變成正比關系的形變稱為彈性形變。彈性形變是非永久性的,即撤去加載后,樣品可恢復初始的形狀。
Elastic recovery:彈性回復
Elastic recovery means that when the applied load is released, the piece returns to its original shape.
彈性回復是指當樣品所受應力撤銷后,其完全回復到初始形狀的現象。
Elastomer: 彈性體

Elastomer is a class of polymers whose deformation displayed by strain-stress curve is totally elastic, i.e., large recoverable strains produced at low stress levels.

彈性體是聚合物的一個種類,它的應力-應變曲線表明其變形是完全彈性的,即很低的應力變化就會產生很大的可回復應變。
Engineering strain: 工程應變

Engineering strain ε is defined according to ε = (li-l0)/l0 = Δl/l0, in which l0 is the original length before any load is applied, and li is the instantaneous length. Sometimes the quantity li-l0 is denoted as Δl, and is the deformation elongation or change in length at some instant, as referenced to the original length. Engineering strain is unitless.
工程應變ε由方程ε = (li-l0)/l0 = Δl/l0定義,這里l0是樣品加載前的初始長度,li是加載瞬間的長度,有時li-l0也用Δl來表示,即代表與初始長度相比較,某一時刻樣品形變的延長率或長度的變化。工程應變是沒有單位的。
Engineering stress: 工程應力
Engineering stress σ is defined by the relationship σ = F/A0, in which F is the instantaneous load applied perpendicular to the specimen cross section, in units of newtons (N), and A0 is the original cross-sectional area before any load is applied (m2). The units of engineering stress are megapascals, MPa.
工程應力σ的定義為σ = F/A0,這里F是加載在垂直樣品橫截面的瞬間載荷,單位為牛頓,A0是加載前樣品的初始橫截面積(單位m2),工程應力單位為MPa。
Flexural strength: 抗彎強度
For the brittle ceramic materials, flexural strengths are determined by the stress at fracture in transverse bending tests.
對脆性陶瓷材料來說,抗彎強度即為橫向彎曲試驗中樣品斷裂時的應力。
Hardness: 硬度
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localize plastic deformation.
硬度是材料抵抗局部塑性形變的量度。
Modulus of elasticity: 彈性模量
For most metals that are stressed in tension and at relatively low levels, stress and strain are proportional to each other through the relationship σ = Eε. This is known as Hooke’s law, and the constant of proportionality E (GPa) is the modulus of elasticity, or Young’s modulus.
大多數金屬在較低的拉力作用下,應力和應變成正比關系,可表達為σ = Eε,這就是胡克定理,比例常數E(GPa)就是彈性模量,或楊氏模量。
Plastic deformation: 塑性形變
As the material is deformed beyond the strain that elastic deformation persists, the stress is no longer proportional tostrain, and permanent, nonrecoverable, or plastic deformation occurs.
當材料的形變超出彈性形變發生的范圍,其應力將不再與應變成正比,永久的、不可回復的形變發生,即為塑性形變。
Poisson’s ratio: 泊松比
Poisson’s ratio represents the negative ratio of transverse and longitudinal strains.
泊松比的定義為樣品橫向應變與軸向應變的相反數。
Proportional limit: 比例極限For metals that experience the gradual elasticplastic transition, the point of yielding is determined as the initial departure from linearity of the stressstrain curve and this is sometimes called the proportional limit.

對于金屬逐步的彈塑性形變轉變,其屈服點確定為應力-應變曲線非線性關系的開始,這個點也被稱為比例極限。
Resilience: 彈性
Resilience is the capacity of a material to absorb energy during elastic deformation.
彈性是指材料在彈性形變中吸收能量的能力。
Safe stress: 安全應力
Safe stress is based on the yielding strength of the material and is defined as the yield strength divided by a factor of safety, N, or σw=σy/N.
安全應力是基于材料的屈服強度,它定義為屈服強度除以一個安全因子N,或σw=σy/N。
Tensile strength: 抗拉強度

Tensile strength corresponds to the maximum tensile stress that may be sustained by a specimen.
抗拉強度是指樣品可能承受的最大拉伸應力。
Toughness: 韌性
Toughness is a measure of the ability of a material to absorb energy up to fracture.
韌性是指材料在斷裂前所能吸收能量的量度.
True strain: 真應變
True stain εT is defined by εT=ln(li/l0), in which l0 is the original length before any load is applied, and li is the instantaneous length.
真應變εT的定義為εT=ln(li/l0),其中l0是樣品加載前的初始長度,li是瞬間長度。
True stress: 真應力
True stress σT is defined as the load F divided by the instantaneous cross-sectional area Ai over which deformation is occurring, or σT = F/Ai.Yielding: 屈服
For metals, the phenomenon of yielding occurs at the onset of plastic or permanent deformation.
金屬的屈服是指塑性或者永久形變開始發生的現象。
Yield strength: 屈服強度
Yielding strength is indicative of the stress at which plastic deformation begins.
屈服強度是指塑性形變開始發生時的應力。

第七章 形變和強化機理

Cold working: 冷加工、冷變形
The plastic deformation of a metal at a temperature below that at which it recrystallizes.
金屬在再結晶溫度以下進行的塑性變形。
Critical resolved shear stress( crss): 臨界剪切分切應力
That shear stress, resolved within a slip plane and direction, which is required to initiate slip.
使得晶體開始滑移所需要的純剪切應力,在某一特定滑移面和滑移方向上的分量。
Dislocation density: 位錯密度
The total dislocation length per unit volume of material; alternately, the number of dislocations that intersect a unit area of a random surface section.
材料單位體積內的位錯線的總長度,或者在一個隨機切面上的單位面積內切斷的位錯根數。
Grain growth: 晶粒長大
The increase in average grain size of a polycrystalline material; for most materials, an elevated-temperature heat treatment is necessary.
多晶體材料中晶粒尺寸的增大,對大多數材料來說,晶粒長大只在升高溫度加熱的時候發生。
Lattice strains: 晶格應變
Slight displacements of atoms relative to their normal lattice positions, normally imposed by crystalline defects such as dislocations, and interstitial and impurity atoms.
原子相對于它們正常點陣位置的輕微位移,通常是由晶體的缺陷,如位錯、間隙原子、雜質原子存在引起的。
Recovery: 回復
The relief of some of the internal strain energy of a previously cold-worked metal, usually by heat treatment.
冷塑性變形金屬釋放其部分應變能的過程叫回復,通常采用熱處理的方法。
Recrystallization: 再結晶

The formation of a new set of strain-free grains within a previously cold-worked material; normally an annealing heat treatment is necessary.
在冷塑性變形材料的內部生成等軸狀新晶粒的過程叫再結晶,通常發生于再結晶退火熱處理過程中。
Recrystallization temperature: 再結晶溫度
For a particular alloy, the minimum temperature at which complete recrystallization will occur within approximately one hour.
對于某種合金,在大約一小時的時間里,完成再結晶所需的最低溫度.
Resolved shear stress: 分切應力
An applied tensile or compressive stress resolved into a shear component along a specific plane and direction within that plane.
一個實際拉或壓應力沿某一特定平面和在該平面特定方向上分解得到的切應力分量。
Slip: 滑移
Plastic deformation as the result of dislocation motion; also, the shear displacement of two adjacent planes of atoms.
位錯移動導致的塑性變形或兩個相鄰原子面的剪切位移。
Slip system: 滑移系
The combination of a crystallographic plane and, within that plane, a crystallographic direction along which slip (i.e., dislocation motion) occurs.
滑移面和該面上一個滑移方向的組合稱為一個滑移系,晶體滑移(如位錯的移動)可以沿該系統發生。
Solid-solution strengthening: 固溶強化
Hardening and strengthening of metals that result from alloying in which a solid solution is formed.
The presence of impurity atoms restricts dislocation mobility.
由于合金化形成固溶體而導致的材料硬化和強化,實質在于溶質原子對位錯運動的阻礙作用。
Strain hardening: 加工硬化

The increase in hardness and strength of a ductile metal as it is plastically deformed below its recrystallization temperature.
塑性材料于再結晶溫度以下進行塑性變形引起的硬度和強度升高現象。
Viscosity (): 粘性
The ratio of the magnitude of an applied shear stress to the velocity gradient that it produces; that is, a measure of a noncrystalline material’s resistance to permanent deformation.

剪切應力數值與其產生應變速率的比值叫粘性,用來衡量非晶材料抵抗永久變形的能力。
Vulcanization: 硫化
Nonreversible chemical reaction involving sulfur or other suitable agent wherein cross links are formed between molecular chains in rubber materials.
硫化是采用硫或者其它適當添加劑處理橡膠原料過程中發生的不可逆化學反應。此種反應在橡膠的分子鏈間形成橫向連接,橡膠的彈性模量和強度會得到提高。

第八章 失效

Ductile fracture.?A mode of fracture that is attended by extensive gross plastic deformation.

延性/韌性斷裂:一種伴隨大量塑性變形的斷裂方式。

Brittle fracture.?Fracture that occurs by rapid crack propagation and without appreciable macroscopic deformation.

脆性斷裂:通過快速裂紋擴展發生斷裂,沒有明顯的宏觀變形。

Transgranular fracture.?Fracture of polycrystalline materials by crack propagation through the grains.

穿晶斷裂:多晶材料裂紋穿過晶粒擴展而斷裂。

Intergranular fracture.?Fracture of polycrystalline materials by crack propagation along grain boundaries.

沿晶斷裂:多晶材料裂紋沿著晶界擴展而斷裂。

Fracture mechanics.?A technique of fracture analysis used to determine the stress level at which preexisting cracks of known size will propagate, leading to fracture.

斷裂力學:一門斷裂分析技術,用于確定已知尺寸的預先存在裂紋擴展并導致斷裂的應力水平。

Stress raiser.?A small flaw (internal or surface) or a structural discontinuity at which an applied tensile stress will be amplified and from which cracks may propagate.

應力集中:一個小裂縫(內部或表面的)或者是結構不連續,在該處施加的拉伸應力將被放大,裂紋會擴展。

Fracture toughness (Kc).?Critical value of the stress intensity factor for which crack extension occurs.

斷裂韌度(Kc):發生裂紋擴展時應力強度因子的臨界值。

Plane strain.?The condition, important in fracture mechanical analyses, wherein, for tensile loading, there is zero strain in a direction perpendicular to both the stress axis and the direction of crack propagation; this condition is found in thick plates, and the zero-strain direction is perpendicular to the plate surface.

平面應變:在斷裂力學中重要的條件,對于拉伸載荷,在垂直于應力軸和裂紋擴展的方向上均為零應變。該條件存在于厚板,零應變方向垂直于板面。

Plane strain fracture toughness (KIc).?The critical value of the stress intensity factor (i.e., at which crack propagation occurs) for the condition of plane strain.

平面應變斷裂韌性(KIc):平面應變條件下應力強度因子的臨界值(即達到該值時裂紋發生擴展)。

Charpy test.?One of two tests (see also?Izod test) that may be used to measure the impact energy or notch toughness of a standard notched specimen. An impact blow is imparted to the specimen by means of a weighted pendulum.

卻貝/擺錘式[單梁]沖擊實驗:兩種用于測量標準缺口試件沖擊功或缺口韌性實驗的一種(另一種見Izod test)。通過重擺錘給試件施加沖擊。

Izod test.?One of two tests (see also?Charpy test) that may be used to measure the impact energy of a standard notched specimen. An impact blow is imparted to the specimen by a weighted pendulum.

懸臂梁式沖擊實驗:兩種用于測量標準缺口試件沖擊功實驗的一種(另一種見Charpy test)。通過重擺錘給試件施加沖擊。

Impact energy (notch toughness).?A measure of the energy absorbed during the fracture of a specimen of standard dimensions and geometry when subjected to very rapid (impact) loading. Charpy and Izod impact tests are used to measure this parameter, which is important in assessing the ductile-to- brittle transition behavior of a material.

沖擊功(缺口韌性):標準尺寸及形狀的試件受到快速沖擊載荷時,斷裂過程中所吸收能量的度量。采用擺錘式或懸臂梁式沖擊實驗來測量該參數。在評定材料的塑性-脆性轉變行為方面很重要。

Ductile-to-brittle transition.?The transition from ductile to brittle behavior with a decrease in temperature exhibited by BCC alloys; the temperature range over which the transition occurs is determined by Charpy and Izod impact tests.

延性-脆性轉變:體心立方合金隨著溫度的降低表現出從延性到脆性行為的轉變。該轉變發生的溫度范圍可以通過擺錘式或懸臂梁式沖擊實驗來確定。

Fatigue limit.?For fatigue, the maximum stress amplitude level below which a material can endure an essentially infinite number of stress cycles and not fail.

疲勞極限:對疲勞而言,最大應力幅值水平,低于該值材料可以承受無限次應力循環而不失效。

Fatigue strength.?The maximum stress level that a material can sustain, without failing, for some specified number of cycles.

疲勞強度:對應某一特定循環次數,材料能承受而不失效的最大應力水平。

Case hardening.?Hardening of the outer surface (or ‘‘case’’) of a steel component by a carburizing or nitriding process; used to improve wear and fatigue resistance.

表面硬化:通過滲碳或滲氮方法使鋼件的外表面或“表面”硬化,用于改善耐磨性和抗疲勞性。Creep.?The time-dependent permanent deformation that occurs under stress; for most materials it is important only at elevated temperatures.?蠕變:承受應力時依賴于時間發生的永久性變形,對大多數材料而言只在高溫下重要。Corrosion fatigue.?A type of failure that results from the simultaneous action of a cyclic stress and chemical attack.腐蝕疲勞:由循環應力和化學腐蝕同時作用導致的一類失效。Fatigue.?Failure, at relatively low stress levels, of structures that are subjected to fluctuating and cyclic stresses.疲勞:在相對低的應力水平下,承受交變和循環應力結構的失效。

Fatigue life (Nf?).?The total number of stress cycles that will cause a fatigue failure at some specified stress amplitude.

疲勞壽命(Nf?):在某一指定應力幅值下,引起疲勞失效的應力循環總數。

Stress intensity factor (K).?A factor used in fracture mechanics to specify the stress intensity at the tip of a crack.

應力強度因子(K):斷裂力學中使用的一個因子,說明裂紋尖端處的應力強度。

Thermal fatigue.?A type of fatigue failure wherein the cyclic stresses are introduced by fluctuating thermal stresses.

熱疲勞:一種疲勞失效類型,循環應力是由于交變熱應力引起的。

第九章 相圖

「材料課堂」常備!《材料科學基礎》專有名詞英文翻譯

Austenite: 奧氏體

具有面心立方晶體結構的鐵g-Fe,也是碳溶解于g-Fe所形成的間隙固溶體。

Cementite: 滲碳體

鐵與碳形成的化合物Fe3C叫做滲碳體,它的含碳量為6.67%

Component: 組元

組成合金的化學組分(元素或化合物),可用于確定其組成。

Congruent transformation: 無成分變化轉變

相同成分的不同相之間的轉變。

Equilibrium (Phase): 平衡(相)

是指體系的一種狀態,在此狀態下,在無限長的時間內,相的性質保持不變。平衡狀態下自由能達到最小值。

Eutectic structure: 共晶結構

具有共晶成分的液體凝固得到的兩相顯微結構(組織) 。

Eutectic phase: 共晶相

共晶結構中存在的兩相中的某一相。

Eutectic reaction: 共晶反應

隨著冷卻過程,一個液相等溫可逆地轉變為兩個緊密混合的新固相的反應。

Eutectoid reaction: 共析反應

隨著冷卻過程,一個固相等溫可逆地轉變為兩個緊密混合的新固相的反應。

Ferrite: 鐵素體

具有體心立方晶體結構的鐵a-Fe,同樣碳溶于a-Fe中的間隙固溶體稱為鐵素體。

Free energy: 自由能

一熱力學量,它是體系的內能和熵(或無序度)的函數。在平衡態,自由能達到其最小值。

Gibbs phase rule: 吉布斯相律

多相平衡系統中,系統的自由度數、獨立組分數、相數和對系統的平衡狀態能夠發生影響的外界因素之間的關系:F=C-P+n

Hypereutectoid alloy: 過共析合金

可得到共析反應的合金體系,此合金中溶質的濃度大于共析成分。

Hypoeutectoid alloy: 亞共析合金

可得到共析反應的合金體系,此合金中溶質的濃度小于共析成分。

Intermediate solid solution: 中間固溶體

非純組分的一定成分范圍的固溶體或相。

Intermetallic compound: 金屬間化合物

具有明確的化學式的兩種金屬間的化合物。在相圖中,它以中間相出現,其存在的成分范圍非常窄。

Invariant point: 三相點

二元相圖中三相平衡共存的點

Isomorphous: 同晶形

具有相同結構的物質。從相圖的理解來講,同構意味著具有相同的結構或者在所有成分范圍內固態完全互溶。

Lever rule: 杠桿規則

一種數學表達式,用來計算在兩相平衡合金體系中的每一相的相對質量。

Liquidus line: 液相線

在二元相圖中,液相和液+固相之間的分界線。合金而言,此線上的液態溫度是在平衡冷卻條件下開始產生固相的溫度。

Metastable: 亞穩

在非常長的時間內可持續存在的非平衡態。

Microconstituent: 微組元

顯微組織的組成,它具有確定的特征結構。由一個以上的相組成,如珠光體。

Pearlite: 珠光體

由共析成分的奧氏體轉變而得到的在一些鋼和鑄鐵中出現的兩相顯微結構,是由a-鐵素體和滲碳體交互形成的層狀或片狀組成。

Peritectic reaction: 包晶反應

隨著冷卻過程,一固相和一液相等溫可逆轉變為具有不同組成的固相的反應。

Phase: 相

體系具有相同的物理和化學性質的均勻部分

Phase diagram: 相圖

用圖形來描述相平衡系統的成分、外界條件(例:溫度和壓力)與相的狀態,這種綜合圖形稱為相圖。

Primary phase: 初晶相

除了共晶結構之外存在的相。

Proeutectoid cementite: 先共析滲碳體

過共析鋼中與珠光體共存的最初析出的滲碳體。

Proeutectoid ferrite: 先共析鐵素體

亞共析鋼中與珠光體共存的最初析出的鐵素體。

Solidus line: 固相線

在相圖中,連接平衡冷卻條件下完成凝固或者平衡加熱條件下開始熔化之點的軌跡線。

Solubility limit: 溶解度

不形成新相的條件下,溶質可溶解在溶劑中的最大濃度。

Solvus line: 固溶相線

在相圖中描述固溶度與溫度關系的點的軌跡線

System: 體系

有兩種可能的含意:(1)所研究的對象既指定材料 (2) 由相同組元組成的一系列可存在的合金。

Terminal solid solution: 端部固溶體

成分范圍處于二元相圖中兩端的固溶體。

Tie line: 結線

二元相圖中穿過兩相平衡區的水平線;結線與相分界線之間的兩個交點各描述在所討論溫度下相的平衡組成。

本文來自“材子考研”。

喜歡 (11)分享 (0)
男女高潮激烈免费,亚洲AV福利天堂导导航,好大好硬好深好爽想要 新闻
<span id="nj5nl"><noframes id="nj5nl"><span id="nj5nl"></span>
<thead id="nj5nl"></thead>
<strike id="nj5nl"><noframes id="nj5nl">
<th id="nj5nl"><noframes id="nj5nl"><th id="nj5nl"></th>
<th id="nj5nl"></th>
<th id="nj5nl"></th>
<th id="nj5nl"><noframes id="nj5nl"><th id="nj5nl"></th><th id="nj5nl"></th>